TV Tropes Thursday: TV Tropes: Four-Temperament Ensemble

This trope is a common method of giving characters distinctive personalities, even if they have similar roles.

A Four-Temperament Ensemble is an ensemble that corresponds to each of the Four Temperaments.  People once believed that personality was based on concentrations of certain bodily fluids: blood, black bile, bile, and phlegm which are called the four humors.  If a person has too much of a a certain fluid or humor, that affects their personality.

As per TV Tropes:

There are many ways to make a group of people diverse without giving them overly specialized roles within an ensemble. One way is through matching personality types according to a wacky ancient pseudoscience. The four temperaments (also called the “four humors”) was a theory that behavior was caused by concentrations of body fluids — the “humors” of classical medicine: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm.

A temporary imbalance would create an illness: too much blood caused a fever, too much yellow bile caused a cough, too much black bile caused depression, and too much phlegm caused a cold. A permanent imbalance led to a person having a certain type of intentions, behavior, and personality. Though this theory has long since been discredited from a scientific standpoint, the general idea still remains and the theory is still used for personality profiling. An ensemble based on these four humors can make the cast diverse without actually changing the roles of the characters in the story.

The four temperament system was an interesting one, but flawed. Several tests noticed people that did not conform to any of the behavior types, so a neutral temperament was created. Along with a sampling of related tropes, the five temperaments (humors) are:

  • Sanguine (blood): Extroverted and people-oriented. Generally likes socialization, fun crowds, and showcases of people’s talents; highly opposed to dwelling on the past. Exhibits optimism, compassion, good cheer, a love of fun, enthusiasm. On the flip side, they may be impulsive, gullible, self-indulgent,lustfulDrama Queenseasily distracted, or even an uber-slob or space case. Tendency to anger-burst, followed by “forgive and forget”; tendency to move on rather than blame anyone. Can often be a KeetThe LoonieSpirited CompetitorBoisterous BruiserBlood KnightThe PollyannaGentleman and a ScholarGossipy Hen, or Motor Mouth; or if female, a more plucky/outgoing Proper LadyKawaiikoGenki Girl, or The Chick.
    • Expressive high, responsive high; response’s delay short, duration short.
    • The Inspired Influencer of DISC.
    • Corresponds to the season of spring and the (hot and moist) air element.
    • In a person’s life, it corresponds to young childhood (roughly ages 0-13).
    • Will often correspond with the Optimist when in a Four Philosophy Ensemble.
    • Amongst the four main “Dere Types” can qualify as the Yandere.
  • Choleric (yellow bile): Extroverted and task-oriented. Mainly seeks success and completion of tasks, and likes to be in charge of successful projects. Exhibits leadership, dominance, ambition, and charisma; also tactical and very passionate. On the flip side, highly pridefuleasily angered or upset and may show arrogance, narrow-mindedness, obsession, and a Hair-Trigger Temper — but known for not showing any kinds of emotion otherwise. Rather than forgive, tendency to snap and move on while kicking to the curb; tendency to blame others. Likes to be independent and have control over others; could beThe Bully or a Bad Boss if in charge. The most likely to be things such as The LeaderThe NeidermeyerAnti-Hero, or The Lancer. If The Smart Guy, it’s by being crafty and cunning. If female, will be a fierce Lady of War or a Tsundere. If heroic, Good Is Not Nice may come into play.
    • Expressive high, responsive low; response’s delay short, duration long.
    • The Dominant of DISC.
    • Corresponds to the season of summer and the (hot and dry) fire element.
    • In a person’s life, it corresponds with adolescence and young adulthood (roughly ages 13-35).
    • Will often correspond with the Realist when in a Four Philosophy Ensemble.
    • Amongst the four main “Dere Types” can qualify as the Tsundere.
  • Melancholic (black bile): Introverted and task-oriented. These characters can be extremely passionate and have high ideals. The intentions and longings found in this temperament are mainly the making and following of rules, good manners being among those rules. These characters focus on the world of internal thought and the best way to apply those thoughts. Independent, courteous, organized, highly refined, hard-working (though tend to work a little too much), analytical; but also a detached, neuroticobsessiveperfectionist whose insanely high standards can lead to depression. Rather than forgive, tendency to withdraw and brood; tendency to blame others, self, and “all of the above” (sometimes all at once). Prone to over-thinking on petty matters which easily makes them stressed to the point of paranoiaGluttony or coveting, or both, are a good bet. Often The Sneaky Guy or a very serious form of The Smart Guyand an excellent candidate for The Leader. Can often hide in a sour shell and, if female, be a more brooding loner-type Ice QueenDark Action GirlThe OpheliaFemme Fatale or Mysterious Woman. Those melancholics who have taken to lives of action can be the Byronic Hero or a Manipulative BastardI Work Alone will often come into play.
    • Expressive low, responsive low; response’s delay long, duration long.
    • The Cautious and Conscientious of DISC.
    • Corresponds to the season of autumn and the (cool and dry) earth element.
    • In a person’s life, it corresponds to middle-aged adulthood (roughly ages 35-65).
    • Will often correspond with The Cynic when in a Four Philosophy Ensemble.
    • Amongst the four main “Dere Types” can qualify as a pure Kuudere.
  • Phlegmatic (phlegm): Introverted and people-oriented. Sometimes referred to as “the sweethearts” of the personalities. The dreams and passions of this temperament are mainly the spread of kindness, forgiveness, and restoration of peace and harmony. Dociletimid, and / or lazy, and frequently hides all emotions (other than sympathy). Tends to be dependent on others, either by choice or because of insecurity, they are also prone to Sloth and can be a very powerful version of The Sneaky Guy (possibly superior to that of a Melancholic) due to natural tendency to be quiet and patient . This temperament is a people person but sometimes expresses these traits in an awkward fashion. Tendency to perhaps brood temporarily, but then “forgive and forget”; tendency to blame self and are prone to awkwardness, indecisiveness but still remain focused. Can often be Weak, but SkilledThe HeartWide-Eyed Idealist, or a more relaxed version of The Smart Guy and, if female, may be an Emotionless GirlYamato NadeshikoTeam Mom, or more submissive Proper Lady.
    • Expressive low, responsive high; response’s delay long, duration short.
    • The Support and Steadiness of DISC.
    • Corresponds to the season of winter and the (cool and moist) water element. (However, water also corresponds to melancholic characters that havecontrol over ice.)
    • In a person’s life, it corresponds to older adulthood (roughly ages 65 and up).
    • Will often correspond with the Apathetic or the Conflicted when in a Four Philosophy Ensemble.
    • Amongst the four main “Dere Types” can qualify as a pure Dandere.

 

However, not all characters can fit one of these four profiles; some of them might be more “neutral.”

  • Leukine (white blood cells): Ambiverted and dually-oriented. The “central” temperament that was created for those who didn’t have one of the four clearly-established temperaments. This type of character can generally be described as middle-of-the-road and neutral. Generally calm, rational, quiet, and reliable. Tends toward either true apathy or rotating among nearly all the world’s emotions (nothing too explosive or extreme) at a smooth, gradual rate. In a positive light, having more than one temperament or balanced among temperaments; but in a negative light, a non-temperamentThe Generic Guy, and a Standardized Leader. Usually reserved for protagonists, The Hero or other leaders when they are neither Hot-Blooded nor emotionless characters, and somewhat more independent but not as introverted.
    • Expressive moderate, responsive moderate; response’s delay variable, duration variable.
    • Will often correspond with the Conflicted or the Apathetic when in a Four Philosophy Ensemble.

Making things more complex, some characters may be a combination of any of the temperaments.

Some sets of four form a “Combo Ensemble”, blending two adjacent temperaments each based on a common aspect. These temperament combos also form the basis for the Myers-Briggs Temperament Indicator.

This ensemble can present in other types of ensembles as well.

Historically in plays, there was a whole genre: Comedy of Humors, where the impetus of the story is the sudden banding of these opposing types. This is in contrast to the Comedy of Errors, where the story is driven by the events and situations.

 

Sometimes a Five-Man Band will also be a Four (or often Five) Temperament Ensemble, but in many cases, they’re mutually exclusive. There is also some overlap with Power Trio scenarios: usually The Kirk is choleric, The McCoy is sanguine, and The Spock is melancholic. In these cases, the phlegmatic role will be filled by a prominent supporting character, who is still clearly outside of the triad. They are also similar to the four Personality Blood Types, and are sometimes also a Four Element Ensemble.

 

If this type of personality dynamic is used for a Five-Man Band, then there are — aside from The Hero as leukine and The Chick as phlegmatic — two very common sets: either The Lancer (choleric), The Smart Guy (melancholic), and The Big Guy (sanguine); or The Lancer (sanguine), The Smart Guy (choleric), andThe Big Guy (melancholic). RPGs in particular like to use a simplification of the second type.

 

See also Cast Calculus for the overarching archetypes in this and differently numbered ensembles. Here is an Image Archive for this trope. Additionally, Pseudolonewolf (of MARDEK fame) has a page that goes into great detail on the four temperaments, here, and The Other Wiki offers its information here. For another way to split up a group of four, see Four Philosophy Ensemble.

 

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TV Tropes Thursday: TV Tropes: Role Ending Misdemeanor

Happy Thursday.  I know that I missed talking about TV Tropes on Tuesday. I’m considering talking about a specific trope on both Tuesday and Thursday, since I have more free time during the summer.

Role Ending Misdemeanor is when a person loses  a job as an entertainer or other type of public figure due to making bad choices, or sometimes, choices that would hurt the reputation of the given production/project.

There are several noteworthy examples.  Two of them come from the world of Beauty Pageants.  Vanessa Williams made history as the first black Miss America in 1983.  But when Penthouse published nude photos of her that were taken one year earlier (she was led to believe that they would be destroyed), she was pressured to give up her crown (Sidenote: Playboy was offered the photos, but turned them down despite their interest because she didn’t give permission for them to see the light of day.).  However, Williams bounced back with successful music and acting careers, and fully recovered from the scandal.

A more recent example is the case of Carrie Prejean, the former Miss California USA 2009, caused a controversy when she revealed during the Miss USA pageant, that she is against marriage equality.  Later there was more scandal when sexually-charged photos of her were publicized, but she was still able to keep her crown and until being stripped of it due to breaching her contract; the breach has nothing to do with the earlier incidents.

Sometimes, however, offending “mores of sexuality” is not the reason for this trope to play out in real life.  Instead, it’s due to actual crimes like assault and drug use.  For example, Aaron Sorkin ended his involvement with The West Wing, due to a drug scandal.

Other times, it is due to cast conflicts,  Shannon Doherty was fired from Beverly Hills, 90210 and Charmed for that reason.  Isaiah Washington was not offered a new contract Grey’s Anatomy following homophobic remarks made againt T.R. Knight.  Nicollette Sheridan was written out of Desperate Housewives, according to the producers, due to unprofessional behavior such as feuding with co-stars, showing up late to the set, and failing to learn her lines; Sheridan, however, alleged in a lawsuit that she was fired because she complained after allegedly being slapped by the show’s creator, Marc Cherry.

 

TV Tropes Tuesday: TV Tropes: Family Relationship Switcheroo

Family Relationship Switcheroo is a trope where it turns out that a family relationship is not what one thought it was.  There can be many variations, but the most common is when it is revealed that a person grew up believing that his or her mother was his or her sister and his or her grandmother was his or her mother.  Actor Jack Nicholson experienced exactly that, never learning the truth until after his mother and grandmother died.

This is something that happened a lot in the past.  Until a few decades ago, it was considered shameful for a girl or woman to be pregnant out of wedlock.  Very often, it would be a family secret.  Not only that, it was common for girls and women pregnant out of wedlock to be sent away to special homes for the duration of the pregnancy, while their mothers would pretend to be pregnant.  Another reason for such an arrangement is that it was common for unwed mothers to be forced to give their babies up for adoption; many girls and women, not wanting to lose their children chose to simply be the older sister to their children rather than the mother; another reason to avoid adoption was the fact that in those days, it was rare for non-white babies to be adopted.  This stopped in the 1970s when birth control pills became widely available, when abortion was legalized, and when premarital sex/cohabitation became more and more socially acceptable.

Today, it is common for children born to teens to be raised by their grandparents, but there is no dishonesty about the relationship.  However, this trope still happens sometimes in real life.  I wouldn’t be shocked if a conservative politician were to do this in order to preserve his or her family image.  However, sometimes there are sinister reasons for this trope to happen in real life; that reason would be to cover up sexual abuse and incest.  Tragically, that might be the most common reason nowadays.

There can be other types of relationship switches.  One might be if a woman were to cheat on her partner with his family member, meaning that his child could biologically be his brother (if she cheated with his father), nephew (if she cheated with his brother), or cousin (if she cheated with an uncle or cousin).  Anther variation is if a man cheats and fathers a child and the child is raised as the man’s nephew/niece.  Yet another variation is a child being raised by an aunt, believing that the aunt is his or her mother.

Some examples in fiction:

  • In the Australian soap Home and Away, Charlie is revealed to be Ruby’s mother, born after Charlie was raped. Charlie’s parents raised the baby as their daughter. When Ruby finds out, she goes ape about it, before finally forgiving Charlie for the deception.
  • A major arc on Moesha involves Dorian discovering that his uncle, Frank, is really his biological father, born from a relationship he had while he was separated from his first wife. His mother was thus really his aunt.
  • On The Parkers (a spin-off of Moesha, above), Nikki is shocked to discover (on a family trivia game show, no less) that she was adopted. Her biological mother turns out to be her aunt.
  • Desperate Housewives : Bree hides the pregnancy of her teenage girl and pretends to be the mother of her grandson.

Some examples in real life:

  • Jack Nicholson’s “older sister” was really his mother while the woman who was allegedly his mom was actually his grandmother. His real mother did it because she had sex with a man (both were unmarried) who ended up leaving her and she didn’t want anyone to know that she was an unwed mother (both Nicholson’s grandmother and mother died before he found out this family secret). In a height of coincidence, he learned this just as Chinatown — in which he starred — was about to open in theaters.
  • The same was true for:The Guinness Book of Records refuses to accept many well-known historical claims for “oldest mother to successfully carry a child to term” out of suspicion that they were examples of this trope.
  • Eric Clapton
  • Bobby Darin
  • David Campbell. His real father was Jimmy Barnes, who would go on to become an Australian rock icon.
  • Ted Bundy suspected for years that his older sister was in fact his mother, finally learning it for a fact in 1969. Even worse, she might very well have been his sister after all, given the heavy, yet unproven speculation that he was the result of Parental Incest between her and his grandfather.
  • Bayard Rustin.
  • Jaycee Lee Dugard’s two daughters, (ages 15 and 11) by her rapist and kidnapper Phillip Garrido believed their whole lives that Jaycee was their older sister and that Garrido’s wife was their mother. They had to find out the horrible truth after the police finally caught and arrested Garrido.
  • Upon the announcement of her candidacy for Vice-President of the United States in the 2008 elections, rumours began to circulate that Gov. Sarah Palin was actually the grandmother of her youngest son, and that his oldest sister was actually his mother. Subverted, as the rumours were soon proved completely unfounded. Her eldest daughter, Bristol, would later get pregnant out of wedlock, but the Palins decided to be public about it.
  • In the Middle Ages it was not unusual for popes to have illegitimate children (such as Pope Alexander VI‘s children, Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia) that they bestowed favors upon, although it was considered gauche to publicly acknowledge their paternity. Instead, they were referred to as “nephews” or “nieces” of the pope. This is the origin of the term “Nepotism“.
  • In 1939, a then-5-year-old girl from Peru named Lina Medina was taken to the hospital for a tumor in her belly. During the examination, it turned out that she was pregnant (she had gone through puberty at an unusually early age). She gave birth via c-section to a young boy, but was told her whole life that he was her younger brother. It is not known who his father was; Lina’s father was jailed on suspicion of incest, but he was released for lack of evidence, and Lina herself wouldn’t say who had done this to her. She lived a pretty normal life otherwise, and later married and had another son (this time one that she actually knew was her son.)

http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/FamilyRelationshipSwitcheroo

 

 

TV Tropes Tuesday: TV Tropes: Chuck Cunningham Syndrome

This trope is the opposite of Remember the New Guy.  Chuck Cunningham Syndrome is when a character is written out of a given series, but after that, there is no mention of him or her, even though the character was important to the show, nor is there any explanation for his or her sudden absence.  It would seem as though the character never existed in the first place.

The name of this trope came from the character Chuck Cunningham, the older brother of Richie Cunningham in Happy Days.  In Chuck’s final appearance he went up stairs holding a basketball, and was never seen nor mentioned again.

Now, why would this happen?  Often a character may start as important, but the writer or writers may gradually lose interest in them until they are forgotten about altogether.  Sometimes, conflict and drama behind the scenes leads to a character being written out, the actor being dismissed, and possibly as a result of the drama, the character being “forgotten” about due to a desire to put out of mind the conflict that lead to the actor being dismissed in the first place.

An example of that least reason is the character of Judy Winslow from Family Matters.  What many people don’t know about that show is that is is a spinoff of a show called Perfect Strangers, which had Hariette Winslow as an original character of that show.  Family Matters was supposed to focus on Hariette’s life with her family, but midway through season one, Jaleel White as Steve Urkel was introduced.  He was supposed to be a one-time only character, but his performance was so very enthusiastically received that he became a permanent part of the show; the show became centered around the Winslow’s family relationship with Steve.  This lead to Judy Winslow, played by Jaimee Foxworth to eventually get the shaft.  Her role in the show became smaller and smaller eventually having no lines and appearing in episodes just to fulfill her contractual obligations; after a demand was made (presumably by her parents on her behalf) for more money and more screen time, Foxworth was let go from the show at the end of the fourth season.  Her final scene consisted of Judy going upstairs to her bedroom to play on her NES.  After this, Judy was written out of the show, and treated as though she never existed.  Foxworth’s life was never the same, and she suffered through drug and alcohol addiction, became a porn star,  and lost her earnings from the show when a judge allowed her family to use her trust fund to settle their bankruptcy; despite this she managed to turn things around and live a fairly normal life.

Degrassi is one of my favorite shows, but one major issue with the show is that several characters were written out with no explanation.  The most noteworthy is Kendra Mason.  She is the adopted sister of Spinner Mason and first appeared in season 2.  After season 3, she was never seen nor mentioned again; supposedly, the actress’s parents pulled her off the show because they objected to planned storyline where Kendra would lose her virginity.  What made this example especially jarring was that Spinner had some dramatic experiences in the following seasons, and yet, she was not there to react to them or help support him through it.

Another example is from Edgemont, a Canadian teen drama set outside Vancouver.  Mile Ferguson, one of the principal actors, died in a car accident before the show’s first season even premiered.  After the second season, his character Scott Linton was written out and never seen nor mentioned  again.  When an actor dies, it can be difficult to know what to do with the character; depending on circumstances, never mentioning the character again, killing them off, or having them move elsewhere could all be accused of being insensitive.

Honestly, writers should avoid this trope.  It is lazy and insulting to audiences and readers.  If there is a need for a show to remove a character, they should come up with some explanation for his or her absence.  Also, one should make the effort to avoid

 

TV Tropes Tuesday: TV Tropes: Spinoff

Happy Tuesday!

Today, I will talk about spinoffs.

Spinoffs are rather close to me because many of the shows that I have conceived are spinoffs.

There are a variety of different kinds.  As per TV Tropes:

 

  1. Where a character leaves a show and the two run concurrently. Characters Crossover from time to time.
  2. Where a show comes to an end and a character from it is given his or her own new show. Provides an opportunity to Retool the character as well.
  3. Where a character is brought on to an existing show simply in order to be spunoff, hopefully making some of the original audience into viewers of the new show (See Poorly Disguised Pilot).
  4. The main character is revisited elsewhere in his narrative.
  5. Reimaginings – the concept is carried into a new show with the same basic premise but other factors and characters are completely new.
  6. Segment spin-offs – a recurring segment from the show becomes the main attraction.
  7. A type of Defictionalization – a Show Within a Show gets made into a real show of its own.
  8. The storyline on one show comes to an end, only to be continued in a new show with a different name.
  9. Official Fanzine Show – a trope usually applying to Reality TV, usually offering Behind The Scenes info or coverage that wouldn’t fit into the main programme, often (but not always) broadcast immediately after the main show, on a sister channel.
  10. Online Spin-Off – A spin-off that’s only shown online, sometimes overlaps with Segment Spin-Off, sometimes a spin-off In Name Only. Generally only an advert for the broadcast programme.
  11. Shared Continuity – more common nowadays, this spinoff generally carries no characters over from the show that spawned it, though both are in the same continuity that allows for Crossovers from the original.

Sometime in the fifth grade I conceived of a show called Tweens.  Eventually, I continued the show with three of the characters from that show called, Carol, Adriana, and Keisha which is a type 2 spinoff.  After that, I conceived of the Luna; it is a type 1 spinoff.

TV Tropes Tuesday: TV Tropes: Credit Card Plot

This is a common stock plot.

Credit Card Plot is about people getting credit cards, buying lots of things, and then realizing that they are in debt because they bought things that they can’t afford.

Quite simple.

TV Tropes notes that this plot is not as relevant as it is in the past because, assuming that the person is not a child or teenager, most people are responsible with credit cards; they would not blindly fall into debt, generally.  Often when a minor (most often a teenager) makes a

Some examples (There may be spoilers):

In the Sister, Sister episode, “Mo’ Credit, Mo’ Problems,” Tia and Tamera get a credit card with a $500 dollar limit.  Tamera buys lots of clothes for herself and her friends.  Shortly afterward, the twins’ car breaks down in a bad neighborhood, and they don’t have the money to get their car towed due to the card being maxed out.

In The Proud Family episode “Don’t Leave Home Without It,” Penny’s parents give her a card which has a mind of its own and urges her to buy lots of clothes.  Of course, she goes crazy and then goes into debt.  She realizes that she can’t handle the responsibility of a credit card, and she returns every item she bought, and the cuts up the card.  The card comes back to life, finds Penny’s friend Dijonay, and the cycle begins again.

Brandy & Mr. Whiskers had “Payback” where after the concept of money is introduced to the jungle by Brandy, Mr. Whiskers becomes a shopaholic; he is given a credit card by villain Gaspar le Geck, and goes into debt.  Gaspar wants to eat Whiskers since he cannot pay his debt off; Brandy and her friends in the Amazon Rainforest, who have their own stores, give Gaspar all of their money to save him.  Whiskers, however, does not learn his lesson, and offers to buy them expensive gifts as a show of gratitude.

Finally, is an exampled that is twisted to be different.  In the Cow and Chicken episode “Free Inside,” Chicken gets a credit card as a prize in his cereal.  He goes to buy lots of weenies (hot dogs) from a weenie store, but the sales clerk cruelly bereates him because he only has 25 cents of credit.  After buying something he can afford (weenie bubblegum), he and Cow and pursued by a loan shark, who demands interest.

TV Tropes Tuesday: TV Tropes: Screwed by the Lawyers

This trope is about how legal issues can prevent creative works from seeing the light of day or that causes their suppression from release.

Many such works are in such a predicament because of disputes over who has the rights to release them.  For example, the 1960s Batman series was made by 20th Century Fox.  However, Batman is owned by DC Comics which since 1969, has been owned by Warner Bros. who has the rights now to make works involving DC Comics characters.

Marvel also has some legal issues.  When it was bought by Disney, the existing licensing deals with the various studios were most unaffected.  Disney would later buy back the rights to the Avengers, Iron Man, Thor, and Captain America (These make up the Marvel Cinematic Universe.) from Paramount, but several other studios still have the film rights to other Marvel properties such as 20th Century Fox, who owns the rights to X-Men and The Fantastic Four, and Sony who owns the rights to Spider-Man.  As such, its unlikely that there could be a crossover movie with all X-Men and Spider-Man, for example, unless.  Another Marvel-related issue with this trope is that the Disney merger led to the end of the animated The Spectacular Spider-Man series; Sony at the time held the film and animation rights to Spider-Man, but returned the animation rights to Marvel in order to keep the film rights.  However, various factors prevented Marvel and Disney from continuing that series because Sony owned the rights to their specific version of Spider-Man, which would have forced Disney and Marvel to license it; it would seemingly defeat the purpose to regain the animation rights and license certain rights from Sony.  As a result, the show ended because no company could move forward with it.

A common reason for TV shows not being released on home media is music rights.  Often, when shows seek the rights to use music, they only get the rights to use it for TV showings.  To release the shows on DVD would requiring contacting the rights holders of the music and creating new agreements to use the music.  Very often, it is difficult and expensive to gain those rights, so the shows are either never released on home media, or they are released with the music changed or with the scenes featuring the music cut out.  MTV had a deal with record companies to use their music for free; this negatively affected shows such as Daria, for example, which was not released on DVD for many years and when it finally was released on DVD, the music was changed. Nowadays, some shows secure the rights to use the music for all forms of distribution.

Some works are legally screwed because they are based on other works.  The 1959 film adaptation of Porgy and Bess is one such work.  It was produced by Samuel Goldwyn who leased the rights for only 15 years.  After that, the rights reverted back to the Gershwin Estate who had control then on out over the film’s distribution.  They don’t like the film because it was not faithful enough to the original opera.   Ira Gerswhin felt that film disrespected his late brother George’s work; in fact, for years, he resisted offers to adapt it to film because he thought it would be “Hollywoodized.”  The music from the original opera was reorchestrated, and much was cut out so that the film would more closely resemble a musical than an opera..  It was pulled from distribution in 1974, and only rarely has it been legally seen public.